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JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences (QIJMHS) is a publication of the Faculty of Medicine, Quest International University Perak, Malaysia. It is a multidisciplinary online journal with issues published biannually. The journal’s full text is available online.
 
 
Indexed in

Google Scholar, Directory of Research Journals Indexing

“QIJMHS” is an open access, international, peer-reviewed medical journal. QIJMHS is dedicated to publishing research in medical science from all disciplines and therapeutic areas of medical science or practice. The journal has a broad coverage of relevant topics across medical science or practice. The types of articles accepted include original research articles, review articles, editorial, case reports, adverse drug reactions, short communications etc. It is published biannually and available in online version.

Salient Features of the Journal

  • Bibliographic information: online: ISSN (will be assigned soon)
  • Free access, peer reviewed, international, medical and health science journal
  • Includes all medical and dental specialties
  • Unique and extensive author support
  • Regularly published twice in a year.
  • Quick and easy communication between editors and authors
  • Multidisciplinary – wide scope journal
  • Email submission
  • Pre-publication peer review
  • Free full text availability of articles
  • Email notifications on new issue release
  • Regularly crawled by all major search engines (Google, Yahoo, MSN)

Specialties Covered
Anaesthesia, Anatomy, Animal Research, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cardiology, Community, Dermatology, Dentistry, Medical education, Emergency Medicine, Endocrinology, Ethics, Ear Nose and Throat, Forensic, Gastroenterology, Genetics, Haematology, Health Management and Policy, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Intensive Care,Internal Medicine, Microbiology, Health Management and Policy, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Intensive Care, Internal Medicine, Microbiology, Nephrology / Renal, Neurology and Neuro Surgery, Nutrition, Oncology, Orthopaedics, Ophthalmology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Neonatology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Pathology, Plastic Surgery, Psychiatry/Mental Health, Rehabilitation, Radiology, Medical statistics, Surgery.

Publisher

The journal is published by QIUP, Perak, Malaysia. QIUP has a primary objective to stimulate and facilitate research publications.

Quest International University Perak (QIUP) (DU021(A)) is a private and comprehensive research-led university established under the Higher Educational Institutions Act 555 and owned by Global Integrated Training Associates Sdn Bhd (formerly known as Blair Education Services Sdn. Bhd) in the State of Perak, Malaysia on 12th June 2008 in which the State Government of Perak has equity participation along with the QI Group. At QIUP, we believe that planting the seeds of curiosity in students from the beginning will inspire them to make ‘knowledge-seeking’ their quest in life.

As a private comprehensive university, students are our top priority. To engage the students and instill in them the hunger of knowledge, we believe in blending theory and practice in education.

We ensure that our programmes are industry-relevant using motivational teaching methods which are highly effective. QIUP graduates will emerge from the University as florets leaving the plant, ready for the job market and will continue their quest to seek and learn.

At QIUP, we focus not just on academics but also on instilling students with the “green” concept, where love for the environment and the community is nurtured amongst them. All QIUP graduates will grow to become well-rounded citizens with an excellent education and a caring heart not just for other fellow humans but for the environment and Earth as well.

Editors

Patrons of the journal

Mr. Nicholas Goh 
Chief Operating Officer
Quest International University Perak (QIUP)

Mr. Muhammad Muammar Gadaffi Omar
Registrar
Quest International University Perak

Advisor

Professor Dato’ Dr. Raman Narayanasamy
Vice Chancellor, QIUP
Department: Psychological & Behavioral Medicine
Faculty of Medicine

Editorial Board members

Editor-in Chief
Dr. Bedanta Roy
Senior Lecturer
Department: Physiology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Co-Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahim Bin Md. Noor
Dean, Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Editorial Board members

Prof. Dr. F.G. Dawoodi
Professor & Head of Department of Anaesthesiology
Department: Anaesthesiology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Prof. Dr. Hashim Md Tahir
Professor and Head of Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Department: Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Prof. Dr. Kiran M. Bhojwani
Professor & Head of Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Department: Otorhinolaryngology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Prof. Dr. Lee Mun Seng
Deputy Dean (Clinical), Professor & Head of Department of Ophthalmology
Department: Ophthalmology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Prof. Dr. Lilli Jacob
Professor & Head of Department of Community Medicine
Department: Community Medicine
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mamunur Rashid
Associate Professor & Head of Department of Internal Medicine
Department: Medicine
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Prof. Dr. Ranjith Mehenderkar
Deputy Dean (Pre-Clinical), Professor
Department: Microbiology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Dato’ Dr. Sellaiah Sithambaram Pillay 
Associate Professor & Head of Department of Radiology
Department: Radiology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Prof. Dr. Shakila Srikumar
Professor & Head of Department of Biochemistry
Department: Biochemistry
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Mr. Shantha Kumar Chandrasekaran
Medical Statistician
Department: Community Medicine
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

Prof. Dr. Sumitabha Ghosh
Professor & Head of Department of Physiology
Department: Physiology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

English language Editor
Mr. Thomas Wilson Lowrie
Senior Lecturer & Programme Coordinator (Modern Languages)

Web editing and hosting
Department of Creative and Digital Media

  1. Aims and Scope
  2. Section policies
  3. Open access policy
  4. Manuscript submission
  5. Review procedure
  6. Format requirements
  7. Legends for illustrations
  8. Submission format
  9. Manuscript checklist
  10. Publishing fees
  11. Plagiarism policy
  12. Ethical statement / Declaration of Conflict of interest
  13. Authorization letter / copyright disclosure statement / content licensing
  14. Advertising policy
    1. Aims and Scope
      The QIJMHS”s mission is to engage, inform, and stimulate doctors, researchers and other health professionals in ways that will improve outcomes for patients, research works and improve the healthcare system. We aim to help medical professionals to make better decisions. We are delighted to consider articles for publication from doctors and others, and from all over the world. The average time from submission to initial assessment is two to three weeks and peer review 2-3 months based on the type of articles and availability of peer reviewers. It is always a best practice because it is beneficial for authors for quick decisions that allow them to submit their valuable research work elsewhere without delay. “QIJMHS” provides the recent advances, most up-to-date, original, well designed, well interpreted and significant information in the field of Medical Sciences. “QIJMHS” covers all aspects in the field of Medical Sciences for postgraduate students, research scholars, medical practitioners, pharmacologists, physiologists, psychologists, epidemiologists etc. Publication Frequency: The Journal publishes biannually. Articles will be published at the earliest after acceptance. Minimum duration of the initial assessment to publication is 8-12 weeks. The Editorial Board and its advisory board consist of renowned doctors and scientists from Malaysia, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and other countries. Acceptances of articles are based on the originality and scientific merit of the research work. All studies should have the approval of a relevant animal and human ethics committee. The manuscript decision is solely based on the peer review process and editorial decisions. Articles will be published after acceptance without delay. We publish manuscripts based on the following sections:
      • Editorial
      • Letter to editor
      • Short communications
      • Current research trends
      • Case reports & case series
      • Original research
      • Student research
      • Review articles (narrative and systematic)
    1. Section Policies Editorial
      Open Submissions; Indexed Original Articles
      Open Submissions, Indexed, Peer Reviewed Reviews
      Open Submissions, Indexed, Peer Reviewed Current Research Trends
      Open Submissions, Indexed, Peer Reviewed Short Communications
      Open Submissions, Indexed, Peer Reviewed Case Reports & Case Series
      Open Submissions, Indexed, Peer Reviewed Letters to the Editor
      Open Submissions, Indexed
    1. Open Access Policy

      This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

      “QIJMHS” receives original material of interest to the practitioners and scientists in the field of Medical Science. Articles describing original clinical or laboratory investigations and case reports will be considered for publication. From time to time invited articles, editorials and review of selected topics will be published. Manuscripts, including illustrations, tables and figures must be original and not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

      QIJMHS, has agreed to receive manuscripts in accordance with the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals,” as cited in N. Engl. J. MED., 1997, 336: 309-15. The Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication, can be obtained from the website http://www.icmje.org

    1. Manuscript Submission

      The author/s should submit a soft copy of the manuscript and a separate copy of the figures and tables to the Editor, QIJMHS. E-mail: qijmhs.editor@qiup.edu.my

      All manuscripts should be accompanied by a covering letter from the author responsible for correspondence regarding the manuscript. The undersigned co-authors of the article should contribute significantly to the manuscript and share in the responsibility for above. The undersigned should stipulate that the material submitted to QIJMHS is new, original and has not been submitted to another publication for concurrent consideration.

      Authors also attest that, any human and /or animal studies undertaken as part of the research from which the manuscript was derived are in compliance with regulation of our institution(s) and with generally accepted guidelines governing such work. Authors should further attest that they have herein disclosed any and all financial or other relationships which could be construed as a conflict of interest and that all sources of financial support for the study have been disclosed and are indicated in the acknowledgement. This statement must be signed by all the major co-authors.

      The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria:

      Available online: http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authors-and-contributors.html, accessed on 13.2.18

      • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
      • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
      • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
      • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

      Non-Author Contributors

      Contributors who meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Examples of activities that alone (without other contributions) do not qualify a contributor for authorship are acquisition of funding; general supervision of a research group or general administrative support; and writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading. Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading (e.g. “Clinical Investigators” or “Participating Investigators”), and their contributions should be specified (e.g., “served as scientific advisors,” “critically reviewed the study proposal,” “collected data,” “provided and cared for study patients”, “participated in writing or technical editing of the manuscript”).

      Because acknowledgment may imply endorsement of acknowledged individuals of a study’s data and conclusions, editors are advised to require that the corresponding author obtain written permission to be acknowledged from all acknowledged individuals.

    1. Review Procedure

      QIJMHS follows a double blind peer review process. Submitted manuscripts are reviewed for originality, significance, adequacy of documentation, reader interest and composition. Manuscript not submitted according to instructions will be returned to the author for correction prior to beginning the peer review/process.

      Revised manuscripts are judged on the adequacy of responses to suggestions and criticisms made during the initial review. All accepted manuscripts are subject to editing for scientific accuracy and clarity by the office of the Editor.

    1. File formats & requirements
      The following word processor file formats are acceptable for the main manuscript document:
      Microsoft word
      Rich text format
      1. General Requirements
        The manuscript must be written in English. Whenever there is any doubt, authors should seek the assistance of experienced, English-speaking medical editors. A medical editor should review the final draft of the original and any revision of the manuscript.Manuscripts for Research articles submitted to QIJMHS should be divided into the following sections (in this order):
        1. Title page
        2. Abstract
        3. Keywords
        4. Background
        5. Methods
        6. Results and discussion
        7. Conclusions
        8. List of abbreviations used (if any)
        9. Competing interests
        10. Authors’ contributions
        11. Authors’ information
        12. Acknowledgements
        13. Endnotes
        14. References
        15. Illustrations and figures (if any)
        16. Tables and captions
        17. Preparing additional files

        Type the manuscript on A4 size with margins of at least 1.5 inches (4 cm) all over the page. Text should be typed in double spacing on every page. Begin each of the following sections on separate pages and in the following order: title page, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables and figures (each on a separate page) and legends. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Type the page number in the upper right-hand corner of each page.

      2. Title Page
        The title page of the manuscript should include:
        • Concise and informative title (less than 200 characters);
        • Complete by line, with first, middle initial and last name of each author. Up to five authors may be cited, rest will be et al or recognize as acknowledgement;
        • Complete affiliation for each author, with the name of the department (s) and institution (s) to which the work should be attributed;
        • Disclaimer, if any;
        • Name, address, mobile/telephone number and email address of corresponding author of the manuscript is necessary;
        • Source of support in the form of grants equipment, drugs, or all of these;
        • Word count.
      3. Abstract
        Provide on a separate page a structured abstract of not more than 250 words for the original article. The structured abstract should consist of four paragraphs, background, methods, results and conclusion. They should briefly describe, respectively, the problem being addressed in the study, how the study was performed, the salient result and what the authors conclude from the results.
      4. Introduction 
        State the purpose of the article and summarize the rationale for the study or observation. Give only strictly relevant references and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported. Clearly mention the objective(s) of the study in this section without adding any sub-heading.
      5. Materials & Methods
        Describe your selection of the observational or experimental subjects (patients or laboratory animals, including controls). The definition and relevance of race and ethnicity are ambiguous. Authors should be particularly careful about using these categories.
        Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer’s name and address in parenthesis) and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Mention setting, study design, sampling method, sample size, inclusion/exclusion criteria wherever applicable. Give references to established methods if necessary, provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s) and route(s) of administration.
        Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements including the protocol (study population, interventions or exposures, outcomes and the rationale for statistical analysis), assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups) and the method of masking (blinding).
        Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.
      6. Ethics
        When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institutions or a national research council’s guide for or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.
      7. Statistics
        • The author(s) must indicate the independent and dependent variable clearly.
        • All the statistical analyses must be done completely according to the procedures.
        • Descriptive statistics must be presented using an appropriate tabulation method to enable the readers to understand the insight of the data.
        • If studies involve Hypothesis testing, it must be tested using either univariate or multivariate analyses.
        • Briefly justify the type of statistics used and the software used to perform the analysis for the study in methodology.
      8. Results
        Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all data in the tables or illustrations. Emphasize or summarize important observations.
      9. Discussion
        Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the introduction or the results section. Include in the discussion section the implications of the findings and their limitations including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies.
        Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data. In particular, authors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed.
      10. Acknowledgements
        Persons who have contributed intellectually to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be named and the function or contribution is described – for example, “administrative approvals”, “scientific advisor critical review of study proposal”, “data collection” etc.. Such persons must have given their permission to be named. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from person acknowledged by name, because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions. Technical help should be acknowledged in a paragraph separate from those acknowledging other contributions.
      11. References
        References should be cited in consecutive numerical order at first mentioned in the text and designated by the reference number in parenthesis. References appearing in a table or figure should be numbered sequentially with those in the text.
        The reference list must be typed double spaced and numbers consecutively, as in the text. The Journal follows the Vancouver style for references and abbreviated journal names. “Unpublished observations” and “personal communications” should not be used as references, although written-not verbal-communications may be noted as such in the text. References cited as “in press” must have been accepted and not merely in preparation or submitted. The author is responsible for the accuracy of all references and must verify them against the original document.
        Please click on the links below to view the Vancouver style reference. http://guides.lib.monash.edu/citing-referencing/vancouver
        http://guides.lib.monash.edu/ld.php?content_id=14570618
        • Abbreviations and Symbols
          With the exception of units of measurement, Journal discourages the use of abbreviations, for additional information on proper medical abbreviation; consult the CBE (Council of Biology Editors) style Manual, Fifth Edition (Bethesda, MD Council of Biology Editions, 1983). When an abbreviation is used, it should be preceded by the full word or name of the item being abbreviated.
        • Drug Names
          Generic names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand name in parentheses in the methods section (this needs to be taken from the CPSP hand out)
      12. Tables
        Type each table double-spaced on a separate page. Do not submit tables as photographs. Tables should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate the text. Each table must be cited in consecutive numerical order in the text. Number the tables consecutively with an Arabic number following the word Table. The titles should be descriptive, brief and typed centered in upper and title, column headings and at the end of the table. Do not use vertical lines. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading.
        Place explanatory matter in footnotes not in the heading. Use the following symbols in this sequence *,**,X,+,++,#. Expand in the footnote all non-standard abbreviations used in each table. For footnotes, identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean. If data from another published source are used, obtain written permission from the publisher of the original source and acknowledge fully. If data from an unpublished source are used, obtain permission from the principal investigator and acknowledge fully.
      13. Illustrations
        Illustrations should clarify and augment the text. The selection of sharp, high-quality illustrations is of paramount importance. Figures of inferior quality will be returned to the author for correction or replacement.
        Submit two complete sets of glossy illustrations, no smaller than 3-1/2×5 inches nor larger than 8×10 inches. Do not send original artwork. Glossy photographs of line drawings rendered professionally on white drawing paper in black India ink, with template or typeset lettering, should be submitted. No hand drawn or typewritten art will be accepted. Letters, numbers and symbols (typeset or template) must be clear and of sufficient size to retain legibility after reduction.
        Each illustration must be numbered and cited in consecutive order in the text. Illustrations should be identified on a gummed label affixed to the back of each illustration and containing the following information: figure number, part of the figure (if more than one) and designation of “top”.
    1. Legends for Illustrations
      Legends for illustrations should be concise and should not repeat the text. Legends should be typed double-spaced on a separate page. Each figure should be cited in consecutive numerical order in the text. Give the figures a number following the word Figure. Use letters to designate parts of the illustrations (e g, A, B, C) and describe each part clearly in the legend. Any letter designations or arrows appearing on the illustration should be identified and described fully.
      Original (not previously published) illustrations are preferred for publication in the Journal; however, if illustrations have been published previously, authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from the publisher to reprint. The source of the original material must be cited in the references and the following credit line included in the legend (reprinted by permission of Ref. X). All permission release must be submitted to the Editor at the time of manuscript submission.
    1. Submission Format
      • Review:
        Preferably 4000 words excluding title page and an unstructured abstract of 150 words and references with no more than five tables or figures and 40 references.
      • Original article:
        Preferably 3000 words excluding title page and a structured abstract of 250 words and references with no more than three tables or figures and 30 references.
      • Short Communications / Case report/ Case Series/ Current research trend:
        Preferably 1500 words excluding title page and an unstructured abstract of 150 words and references with no more than two tables or figures and 10 references. It should not be signed by more than six authors.Case Report/Series: abstract; introduction; case report; discussion and conclusion.
        Current research trend: abstract; introduction; methods; result; and conclusion.
      • Letter to the Editor:
        Preferably 250 words if it is in reference to a recent journal article or 400 words in all other cases. It must have no more than five references and one figure or table. It must not be signed by more than three authors. Letters referring to a recent journal article must be received within four weeks of its publication.
        Prepare original double-spaced typed manuscript.
        Mention type of submission in your cover letter with a word count. Title page with title, authors’ names and complete affiliations; corresponding author, complete address, telephone number and email address (necessary), author for reprint requests and complete address. References in consecutive numerical order. Reference list typed double space. Figures and Tables in consecutive numerical order.
        Legends for all figures typed double spaced. Consent forms for patient photographs. Written permission from the publisher to reprint previously published figures and tables.
    1. Manuscript checklist / submission preparation checklist
      • As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission’s compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
      • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
      • The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format.
      • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
      • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point Calibri font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
      • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
      • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
    1. Publication Fees
      Currently there is no publication fee to publish in the journal.
    1. Plagiarism Policy
      • The Journal follows the authorship guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
      • The Journal follows the standard international definition and description of plagiarism.
      • The Journal assigns equal responsibility of the intellectual integrity of the manuscript to all authors whose names appear on the manuscript/article. When submitting a manuscript, the Journal requires that all authors sign a statement accepting this responsibility.
      • This statement must indicate that no part of the manuscript has been plagiarized.
      • Any such material should be made accessible to the Editor and should only be used with references according to the guidelines of authorship. This may otherwise form the basis of a redundant publication/duplicate publication/”salami slicing” and appropriate action may be taken by the Editor which may range from rejection of the manuscript to debarment of the authors(s) from further publication in the Journal.
      • It is emphasized that the Journal considers self plagiarism as equally unethical as plagiarism in any other form. If material is to be used from the author’s previous work, standard referencing guidelines must be followed.
      • All manuscripts submitted to the Journal will be checked for plagiarism. If a manuscript submitted for publication (or a manuscript accepted for publication or an article that has already been published in the Journal) is found to be based on plagiarized material, the Editor will be obliged to write to the author(s) seeking an explanation. The corresponding author will be required to respond with an explanation within 30 days of receiving the letter from the editor.
      • Any such manuscript for review will be held up till the matter is resolved.
      • After receiving the author’s explanation, if considered necessary, the Editor may also send a letter of information to the Head of the Institution or any other relevant authority at the author(s) institution.
      • In case an acceptable explanation is provided by the author(s), the Editor may recommend appropriate changes after which the review process for the submitted manuscript may commence.
      • In case of failure of author(s) to either respond within the stipulated time, or in case they are unable to provide a suitable explanation, the Editor will convene a meeting of the Plagiarism Committee of the Board of Editors of the Journal to consider further action.
      • Further action will depend upon the nature of the offence and may include rejection of the manuscript from publication along with possible debarment of the author(s) from further publishing in the Journal. The period of debarment will depend upon the nature of the offence and may range from a period of a few months to permanent.
      • Information regarding this action may be published in the forth forthcoming issue of the Journal on a numbered page. Plagiarism, if detected and proven, would be considered a punishable offence. Immediate and unbiased action will be taken.
    1. Ethical Statement
      Manuscript submitted to the journal should follow all procedures in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Ethical clearance from appropriate authority should be submitted for original articles. Please follow the link to view WHO guidelines (2015) in Global health ethics:
      key issues http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/164576/1/9789240694033_eng.pdf
      Authors should declare that no unfair or unethical means have been employed to produce this manuscript and that no part of the submission has been plagiarized in any form. Before submission authors should be aware of the QIJMHS, Plagiarism Policy which they should read on the Journal website and are in total compliance with it.
      Authors also attest that any human and /or animal studies undertaken as part of the research, from which this manuscript was derived, are in compliance with regulation of the respective institution(s) and with generally accepted guidelines governing such work.
      Authors further attest that they have herein disclosed any and all financial or other relationships which could be construed as a conflict of interest and that all sources of financial support for this study have been disclosed and are indicated in the acknowledgement.
  1. Authorization letter / copyright disclosure statement / content licensing
    Articles in the QIJMHS are Open Access articles; published & licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

    The licensor permits others to share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

    Under the following terms:
    Attribution — you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

    No additional restrictions — you may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

    More about Financial competing interests

    When completing your declaration, please consider the following questions:

    In the past five years have you received reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of this manuscript, either now or in the future? Is such an organization financing this manuscript (including the article-processing charge)? If so, please specify.

    Do you hold any stocks or shares in an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of this manuscript, either now or in the future? If so, please specify.

    Do you hold or are you currently applying for any patents relating to the content of the manuscript?

    Have you received reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an organization that holds or has applied for patents relating to the content of the manuscript? If so, please specify. Do you have any other financial competing interests? If so, please specify.

    Non-financial competing interests

    Are there any non-financial competing interests (political, personal, religious, ideological, academic, intellectual, commercial or any other) to declare in relation to this manuscript? If so, please specify. If you are unsure as to whether you, or one your co-authors, has a competing interest please discuss it with the editorial office.

    The covering letter should also contain a statement that the manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors and should give any additional information which may be helpful to the Editor. If there has been any prior publication of any part of the work, this should be acknowledged and appropriate written permission included.

Volume – 1, Issue – 1

Jan – June, 2018

EDITORIAL
Preface to the first edition – QIJMHS

Roy B, Malik AS, Seng LM, Mehenderkar R, Jacob L

DOI:

REVIEW ARTICLE
What really is Hybrid Problem-Based Learning Curriculum? A review from

Malik AS, Malik RH

DOI:

SHORT COMMUNICATION
Small group discussion technique in Pharmacology: An insight from a medical school in Mauritius

Banerjee I, Sathian B

DOI:

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination challenges in Qatar

Sathian B, van Teijlingen ER, Rajesh E

DOI:

REVIEW ARTICLE
Physiology of stress and the involvement of reactive oxidative species: A mini review

Roy B

DOI:

Volume – 1, Issue – 2

July – Dec, 2018

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Impact of electronic devices on the life of children: A cross sectional study from Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
Unplagan K, Balasubramaniam B, Premkumar T, Chien JLC, Rao AS, Rasit RASA

DOI:

SHORT COMMUNICATION

OSPE:  Must know for the medical students – experience from a medical faculty in Malaysia 
Habib N, Afrose T, Nangarath E.

DOI:

EDITORIAL
Frontiers for Excellence
Noor ARM

DOI:

Volume – 2, Issue – 1

Jan – June, 2019

EDITORIAL
Changing trends in private medical education in Malaysia
Narayanasamy R

DOI:

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The “failure to fail” phenomenon in the clinical long case examination
Ramachandran G, Ko KMA, Ghosh S

DOI:

REVIEW ARTICLE
Relevance of leech therapy in contemporary medicine: A mini-review
Ghosh S

DOI:

We are currently accepting submission of manuscript by email.

bedanta.roy@qiup.edu.my or lilli.jacob@qiup.edu.my

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Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Bedanta Roy
Senior Lecturer
Department: Physiology
Faculty of Medicine, QIUP
bedanta.roy@qiup.edu.my

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Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahim Bin Md. Noor
Dean, Faculty of Medicine, QIUP

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Preface to the first edition – QIJMHS

Editorial | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 1, page number.

DOI:

Bedanta Roy1, Alam Sher Malik2, Lee Mun Seng3, Ranjith Mehenderkar4, Lilli Jacob5

Author information
1Dr. Bedanta Roy, Senior Lecturer, Department of Physiology

2Prof. Dr. Alam Sher Malik, Dean & Professor, Department of Paediatrics

3Prof. Dr. Lee Mun Seng, Deputy Dean (Clinical), Professor & Head of Department of Ophthalmology

4Prof. Dr. Ranjith Mehenderkar, Deputy Dean (Pre Clinical), Professor, Department of Microbiology

5Prof. Dr. Lilli Jacob, Professor& Head of Department of Community Medicine, Department of Community Medicine

All authors are affiliated to
Faculty of Medicine
Quest International University Perak
No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2)
Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun
30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Corresponding Author: 

Dr. Bedanta Roy, Senior Lecturer, Department of Physiology

Abstract
Abstract unavailable.

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What really is Hybrid Problem-Based Learning Curriculum? A review

Review Article | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 1, page number.

DOI:

Alam Sher Malik1, Rukhsana Hussain Malik2

Author information

1Prof. Dr. Alam Sher Malik, Dean  & Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine

2Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Hussain Malik, Professor, Medical Education

All authors are affiliated to

Quest International University Perak

No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2)

Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun

30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Corresponding Author: 

Prof. Dr. Alam Sher Malik

Abstract

The elusive definition of PBL as an educational concept, dissatisfaction with variable methods of its implementation, perceived lack of depth of knowledge in basic sciences of PBL students and the ease, familiarity and economical teaching through large group teaching formats such as lectures has given birth to “Hybrid Problem-based Learning” (hPBL) curriculum.

The idea of hPBL has attracted many educationists and medical schools. The hPBL curriculum can be identified with various aspects of a true PBL such as the SPICES model of the range of educational strategies and concept of PBL as a continuum rather than one immutable process. However, the definition of hPBL is equally vague and there are a vast number of variations in its comprehension and implementation.

In this article we have attempted to determine (a) what really is hPBL curriculum and how does it differ from the “pure PBL” curriculum (b) why institutions felt the need for a hPBL curriculum? Using the hPBL curriculum of Faculties of Medicine at Universiti Teknologi MARA and Quest International University Perak, Malaysia as an example we have elaborated the different aspects and effects of this approach on teaching and learning. Finally, we have formulated a comprehensive definition of hPBL curriculum.

Keywords

Educational effects, hybrid, Problem-based Learning, traditional curriculum.

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Small group discussion technique in Pharmacology: An insight from a medical school in Mauritius

Short Communication | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 1, page number.

DOI:

Indrajit Banerjee1, Brijesh Sathian2

Author information

1Dr. Indrajit Banerjee, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Medical College (SSRMC), Belle Rive, Mauritius.

2Dr. Brijesh Sathian, Academic Research Associate, Trauma Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

Corresponding Author: 

Dr. Indrajit Banerjee

Abstract

Group discussion is a training technique in which most of the ideas, thoughts, questions, and answers are initiated by the participants. Mostly, medical schools follow undergraduate teaching through didactic lectures, practical training, and clinics, where active student participation is minimal. Small group teaching-learning activities have been in the limelight of medical education for many years, which enhances skills like problem-solving, critical thinking, role-playing, team-based learning, brainstorming, debating, and leadership. Teaching and learning in an active way, develop problem-solving or reasoning skills will help the students to become better doctors in future. In SSRMC, Mauritius, we introduced small group discussion sessions in the Department of Pharmacology in 2015, which were highly appreciated by the medical students. The content to be covered for the small group discussion is selected based on the learning outcomes of pharmacology covered in the concerned module. We follow the buzz group, step by step, controlled discussion format and snowball/ pyramid groups for small group discussion. Small group discussion session is usually carried out once a month. Students found this technique to be more interesting and informative, engaging as compared to the traditional lecture classes. This technique also encouraged students to ask questions for clarification and better understanding. It helps students in the deep learning process and stimulates them to comprehend the subject more critically and effectively.

Keywords

Mauritius, medical education, small group discussion

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Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination challenges in Qatar

Letter to the Editor | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 1, page number.

DOI:

Brijesh Sathian1, Edwin R van Teijlingen2, Rajesh E3

Author information

1Dr. Brijesh Sathian, Academic Research Associate, Trauma Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

2Dr. Edwin R van Teijlingen, Professor, Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK.

3Dr. Rajesh E, Assistant Professor, School of Behavioural Sciences, MG University, Kerala, India.

Corresponding Author: 

Dr. Brijesh Sathian

Abstract
Abstract unavailable.

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Physiology of stress and the involvement of reactive oxidative species: A mini-review

Review Article | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 1, page number.

DOI:

Bedanta Roy

Author information

Dr. Bedanta Roy, Senior Lecturer, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine

Quest International University Perak

No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2)

Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun

30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Abstract

Stress is evident amongst all organisms as a part of their life. It triggers various neurohormonal changes to restore homeostasis. Physiological responses and psychological changes occur during stress. The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) play a major role in response to stress. SNS acts via norepinephrine through subcortical activation of the locus coeruleus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the derivatives of oxygen, which produce free radicals. The cell membrane contains a high level of unsaturated fatty acids that is damaged by ROS oxidation. Protein damages occur directly or indirectly by ROS by fragmentation, peroxidation, structural changes, proteolysis and formation of cross-linkages. ROS can damage DNA bases and deoxyribose sugars; cause purine losses, DNA strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-linkages and harm to the DNA repair mechanism. Higher levels of ROS lead to disease states. Understanding the mechanisms and significance of ROS involving pathways may help to reveal therapeutic strategies for diseases.

Keywords

Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, reactive oxygen species, stress, sympathetic nervous system

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Impact of electronic devices on the life of children: A cross sectional study from Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Original Article | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 2, page number 30-34.

DOI:
1Ms. Karthiyayini Unplagan, final year MBBS student
2Ms. Barathi Balasubramaniam, final year MBBS student
3Ms. Thiwya Premkumar, final year MBBS student
4Ms. Joey Lim Chu Chien, final year MBBS student
5Ms. Annushia Sivaji Rao, final year MBBS student
6Ms. Ratna Agustina Sibarani Ahmat Rasit, final year MBBS student

All authors are affiliated to

Faculty of Medicine
Quest International University Perak
No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2)
Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun
30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Abstract
Introduction:
The prevalence of electronic device usage by children has been increasing at an alarming rate. The contributing factors are parents, peers, media, society, and children themselves. Thus, the aim of this research was to help both children and parents to understand the consequences of excessive use of electronic gadgets as well as to rationalize their thought to control the usage.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2017 to April 2018 among children aged 6 to 11 years old in a community setting. 174 children participated in this study. SPSS version 20 was used to determine the association between time spent on electronic devices and the impact on the children’s life.

Results:
A majority of children 105 (60.3%) obtained insufficient sleep which is less than 9 hours. There is a significant mean rank difference of average time spent on electronic devices between gender (p = 0.009). Male spent more time on electronic devices compared to females.

Conclusion:
Spending more timing on electronic devices leads to health problems and insufficient sleep. It may reflect on exam performances. So we suggest limiting media exposure to the children less than an hour. Parents should play a crucial role in teaching them how to use technology safely. Family members should be very careful to monitor children’s media content. If required, addicted children should be given proper rehabilitation therapy to get rid of such a problem.

Keywords
Electronic devices, examination, sleep, social media

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OSPE: Must know for the medical students – experience from a medical faculty in Malaysia

Short Communication | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 2, page number 27-29.

DOI:

1Dr.Nasrin Habib MBBS, M.Phil MPH, Senior Lecturer, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Quest International University Perak, No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2), Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun, 30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
2Dr. Tahmina Afrose, MBBS, MPH, Lecturer, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, 08100, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia
3Dr. Ebrahim Nangarath Kottakal Cheriya, M.Sc, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Quest International University Perak, No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2), Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun, 30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Abstract
Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) is considered one of the most effective methodologies for the assessment of the clinical skills of medical students. It is the best way to examine clinical competence. Ideally, we use approximately 5 stations for the OSPE examination, but sometimes the number of stations may increase. Observers with agreed checklists having a suitable number of questions, mark the student’s performance. This is a valid tool to assess clinical competency. This integrated evaluation process enhances the teacher-student interaction positively.

Keywords
Clinical competency, examination tool, marks, Objective Structured Practical Examination, station

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Frontiers for Excellence

Editorial | Open Access |

Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2018, June; volume 1, issue 2, page number 25-26.

 

DOI:

Abdul Rahim Md Noor

Author information

Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahim Md Noor,

Dean Faculty of Medicine

Quest International University Perak

No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2)

Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun

30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Abstract
Abstract unavailable.

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Changing trends in private medical education in Malaysia

Editorial | Open Access |
Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2019, June; volume 2, issue 1, page number 1-2.

Author information
Professor Dato’ Dr. Raman Narayanasamy
Professor, Department of Psychological and Behavioural Medicine (PBM)
Vice-Chancellor, Quest International University Perak
No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2)
Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun
30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Abstract
Abstract unavailable.

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The “failure to fail” phenomenon in the clinical long case examination

Original Article| Open Access |
Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2019, June; volume 2, issue 1, page number 3-7.

Author information
Assoc.Prof. (Dr.) Ganesh Ramachandran, Deputy Dean Academic Affairs, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Selangor, Malaysia

(Corresponding author)
Dr. Aung Ko Ko Min, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences MAHSA University, Selangor, Malaysia

Assoc Prof (Dr) Sarmishtha Ghosh, IMU School of Education, International Medical University Kuala Lumpur

Information about the article:

Abstract

Introduction:
In the final clinical examination for undergraduate students, real patients are used to assessing the clinical competence of the students. Numerical scores based on a predetermined rubric are awarded to decide the status of the students. Subjective comments by examiners are encouraged to assess concordance. The aim of the study is to find out if the subjective comments match the numerical scores for the students undertaking the examination.

Methods:
This is a cross-sectional study for a batch of 106 students. The mark sheet was framed with standard criteria for a long case and examiners were briefed to give marks according to the criteria; they were allowed to give free comments. These were collected and thematic analysis was conducted. The categories used were “do not tally”, “tally” and “no comment”.

Results:
In medicine and surgery, 0% – 4.5% of the responses did not tally, whereas 38%-50% tallied. In the “no comment” category, all except two candidates passed. In paediatrics and psychiatry, 35%-50% of the responses did not tally, while 25%-50% were with no comments but clear passes. Obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) and orthopaedics had 18%-30% responses that did not tally, and 18%-40% responses that showed concordance. The significant observation was 0% of “do not tally” in surgery and 0% “tally” in psychiatry.

Conclusion:
The disparity of subjective comment was lowest in medicine and surgery whereas it was highest in psychiatry. Paediatrics, O&G and orthopaedics have a considerable concordance. Possible causes and solutions are discussed.

Keywords
Clinical assessment, concordance, discordance, long case subjective comments

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Relevance of leech therapy in contemporary medicine: A mini-review

Review Article| Open Access |
Quest International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2019, June; volume 2, issue 1, page number 8-12.

Author information
Prof. (Dr.) Sumitabha Ghosh, Professor & HOD, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine
Quest International University Perak
No. 227, Plaza Teh Teng Seng (level 2)
Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun
30250 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

Abstract

Medicinal leech therapy has been used for centuries. Its popularity reached its peak in the early part of the 19th century and then plummeted for about a century only to resurge after the mid-20th century. Leeches feed on blood by anchoring themselves on the skin of vertebrates and in the process inject saliva into the host. Leech saliva contains more than 100 bioactive molecules of which more than 20 have been identified with useful healing properties. It has antithrombin, antiplatelet, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, vasodilatory and other properties that are beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, carcinomas, diabetes mellitus. Leech therapy is used by plastic and reconstructive surgeons for replantation of digits, salvage of failing flaps etc. Leech therapy has a huge potential for future therapeutics.

Keywords
Antithrombin, deep vein thrombosis, hirudin, leech, leech therapy, saliva

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